Prostate Cancer Screening for African American Men

What do you think needs to take precedence in Community Health Nursing in the next five to fifteen years?
August 2, 2020
Research Abstracts in Psychology due in 8 hours
August 2, 2020

Prostate Cancer Screening for African American Men

Given the above background, the aim of this pilot program will focus on an educational strategy that promotes screening behavior among African American men in church – based setting in Hollywood, Florida. Implementing a program that increases knowledge, empowerment and encourages behavioral change are extremely important to decrease the health disparity that exists among African American men.

The specific goals of this educational program include: (1) increase knowledge about the benefits prostate cancer screening; (2) promote confidence in men’s ability to participate in the decision making process of prostate screening; (3) to develop and test the effectiveness of an education intervention (Drake et al., 2010; Odedina, 2011). Overall, the aim of this program will focus on empowerment strategies that can ultimately promote screening behavior in African American men in a faith – based setting.

Background and Significance

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men (American Cancer Society, 2013). According to Jemal et al. (2011), prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death in men worldwide, accounting for 6% total cancer deaths in men in 2008. In 2010, there were 217,730 American men diagnosed with prostate cancer and 32,050 died from it (Altekruse et al., 2010). In 2013, approximately 238,590 new cases are expected to be diagnosed and 29,790 deaths from prostate cancer will occur in the United States. In Florida, an estimated number of new cases of prostate cancer is17,330 and 2,770 estimated deaths (American Cancer Society, 2013). To add to this burden, prostate cancer is not uniform across racial and ethnic groups (Friedman et al., 2012).

According to American Cancer Society (2013), African American men bear a disproportionate burden for prostate cancer incidence and mortality, having the highest incidence, poorest survival, and a twofold higher mortality when compared with other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. African American men have 1 in 5 lifetime probability of developing prostate cancer compared to 1 in 7 for Caucasians.

The death rate for prostate cancer is 2.4 times higher in African American men than in Caucasian men. African Americans are the only group that has not met the Healthy People 2010 goal of reducing prostate cancer mortality rate to 28.8/100,000 by 2010. With the continuous disparities between African American and other ethnic groups on prostate cancer incidence, survival, and deaths, a key way to close the gap is individual health promotion and disease prevention behaviors to reduce the behavioral risk factors for prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2013; Odedina, 2011).

African American men have lower screening rates for prostate cancer as compared to Caucasian men (Lim et al., 2008; Woods, Montgomery, Herring, Gardner &Stokois, 2006). Furthermore, African American men are significantly more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer at a younger age (<45 years) compared with Caucasian men (Karami, Young& Henson, 2007). In light of existing disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality, consistent screening for cancer has been shown to improve cancer incidence and mortality rates. Results from a large randomized study that examined prostate cancer screening and mortality found that screening reduced the rate of death from prostate cancer by 20% (Schröder et al., 2009).

Prior studies have shown that church-based settings are an acceptable venue in which to provide health information to African American audiences (Campbell et al., 2007). Churches play a significant role in many African American communities and represent a trusted, credible institution that addresses both spiritual and physical health (Drake, 2010). Church-based organizations represent a promising community setting in which to implement inform decision making interventions targeting African American men (Campbell et al., 2007; Holt et al., 2009; Sanchez et al., 2007).

Numerous studies emphasizes the need for additional programs in faith – based settings about decision-making processes among African American men (Drake et al., 2010; Campbell et al., 2007; Holt et al., 2009; Sanchez et al., 2007). Therefore, the proposed intervention program is an education-based approach for African American men regarding the benefits and risks of early detection of prostate cancer.

This program is expected to have far reaching effects on the education of African American men by providing them with the necessary information that will allow them to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening. This program seeks to decrease the health disparity that exists among African American men as health outcomes are improved.

The health promotion program budget involves classification and computation of revenues and costs that are associated with the delivery of selected activities over a period of time. The length of time makes a program budget different from an event budget. The event budget is made for a shorter period of time unlike the program budget which consumes reasonable time (Issel, 2004).

The program planner has a duty of assessing the feasibility of undertaking the program. Therefore the development of prostate cancer health program budget highlights the programmatic changes that must be considered in the program in order to be feasible and effective. The health planner should liaise with a financial specialist, funding agencies and administrator in order to effectively develop a reliable program budget (Issel, 2004).

Issel (2004) outlines the basic revenue and costs items. The author defines fixed costs as those that do not change with the number of client whereas the variable costs are those subject to change as the client number change. The development of the budget must be conducted in a careful manner in order to consider all the possible items. This is due to the technicalities surrounding budgeting, where some items might be hard to recognize and others easily identified.

Hernandez (2011) previews the importance of strategic planning process especially in budgetary process. The author highlights the need for accuracy in budgetary process and illustrates a case of a new employee salary where it may or may not feature in the program budget depending on the type of funding. Grant funding show exception on this case.

 

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